DIAGNOSIS: Mixed Anxiety Conditions
TREATMENT: Systematic Treatment Selection for General Outpatient Populations

2015 EST Status: Treatment pending re-evaluation Very strong: High-quality evidence that treatment improves symptoms and functional outcomes at post-treatment and follow-up; little risk of harm; requires reasonable amount of resources; effective in non-research settings

Strong: Moderate- to high-quality evidence that treatment improves symptoms OR functional outcomes; not a high risk of harm; reasonable use of resources

Weak: Low or very low-quality evidence that treatment produces clinically meaningful effects on symptoms or functional outcomes; Gains from the treatment may not warrant resources involved

Insufficient Evidence: No meta-analytic study could be identified

Insufficient Evidence: Existing meta-analyses are not of sufficient quality

Treatment pending re-evaluation

1998 EST Status: Strong Research Support Strong: Support from two well-designed studies conducted by independent investigators.

Modest: Support from one well-designed study or several adequately designed studies.

Controversial: Conflicting results, or claims regarding mechanisms are unsupported.

Strength of Research Support

Empirical Review Status
2015 Criteria
(Tolin et al. Recommendation)
Very Strong
Insufficient Evidence
Treatment pending re-evaluation
1998 Criteria
(Chambless et al. EST)

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Brief Summary

  • Basic premise: STS is an evidence based treatment that uses empirical principles to compile an integrated treatment plan to identify procedures that optimize clinical change, based on clients’ personal qualities and problem characteristics. Therapists can use STS principles within or across theories to tailor treatment for their client’s needs.
  • Essence of therapy: STS is a “prescriptive psychotherapy” which guides therapists as they choose procedures and treatment modalities from a wide variety of approaches by following evidence driven principles of change. STS therapy integrates both cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapies with regard to clients’ coping styles.
  • Length: STS therapy is conducted within a framework of 8 to 24 sessions. The length varies with clients’ levels of functional impairment, readiness for change, and therapists’ flexibility to select and use effective interventions that fit the patient.  The effects are generally retained over 6 and 12 month follow ups.

Treatment Resources

Editors:Larry E. Beutler, PhD; Satoko Kimpara, PhD; Kimberley Miller, MS; Dennis Heller, MS

Note: The resources provided below are intended to supplement not replace foundational training in mental health treatment and evidence-based practice

Treatment Manuals / Outlines

Treatment Manuals
Books Available for Purchase Through External Sites

Training Materials and Workshops

Measures, Handouts and Worksheets

Self-help Books



Important Note: The books listed above are based on empirically-supported in-person treatments. They have not necessarily been evaluated empirically either by themselves or in conjunction with in-person treatment. We list them as a resource for clinicians who assign them as an adjunct to conducting in-person treatment.

Smartphone Apps

Video Demonstrations


Videos Available for Purchase Through External Sites



Clinical Trials

Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews

  • Coping Style (2nd ed.; Beutler, Harwood, Kimpara, Verdirame, & Blau, 2011)
  • Resistance/Reactance Level (2nd ed.; Beutler, Harwood, Michelson, Song & Holman, 2011)
  • Coping Styles (3rd ed.; Beutler, Edwards, Kimpara, & Miller, in press)
  • Reactance/Resistance (3rd ed.; Edwards, Beutler, & Someah, in press)

Other Treatment Resources