2015 EST Status: Treatment pending re-evaluation Very strong: High-quality evidence that treatment improves symptoms and functional outcomes at post-treatment and follow-up; little risk of harm; requires reasonable amount of resources; effective in non-research settings

Strong: Moderate- to high-quality evidence that treatment improves symptoms OR functional outcomes; not a high risk of harm; reasonable use of resources

Weak: Low or very low-quality evidence that treatment produces clinically meaningful effects on symptoms or functional outcomes; Gains from the treatment may not warrant resources involved

Insufficient Evidence: No meta-analytic study could be identified

Insufficient Evidence: Existing meta-analyses are not of sufficient quality

Treatment pending re-evaluation

1998 EST Status: Strong Research Support Strong: Support from two well-designed studies conducted by independent investigators.

Modest: Support from one well-designed study or several adequately designed studies.

Controversial: Conflicting results, or claims regarding mechanisms are unsupported.

Strength of Research Support

Empirical Review Status
2015 Criteria
(Tolin et al. Recommendation)
Very Strong
Insufficient Evidence
Treatment pending re-evaluation
1998 Criteria
(Chambless et al. EST)

Find a Therapist specializing in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain. List your practice

Brief Summary

  • Basic premise: By accepting and learning to live with pain, one can limit the control it exerts over his or her life.
  • Essence of therapy: This therapy guides individuals to change their expectations from the elimination of pain to living as well as possible with pain. Through metaphors and experiential exercises, individuals learn the futility of control-oriented strategies and the benefits of acceptance-oriented strategies in response to negative internal experiences such as pain and discomfort. Individuals are encouraged to explore their personal values and set goals consistent with those values in order to improve overall quality of life and functioning.
  • Length: approx. 8 sessions

Treatment Resources

Editors: Evan Forman, PhD; Joanna Kaye, BA

Note: The resources provided below are intended to supplement not replace foundational training in mental health treatment and evidence-based practice

Treatment Manuals / Outlines

Treatment Manuals
Books Available for Purchase Through External Sites

Measures, Handouts and Worksheets


Self-help Books

Important Note: The books listed above are based on empirically-supported in-person treatments. They have not necessarily been evaluated empirically either by themselves or in conjunction with in-person treatment. We list them as a resource for clinicians who assign them as an adjunct to conducting in-person treatment.

Smartphone Apps

Clinical Trials



Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews



Other Treatment Resources